The origins of the Hutu and Tutsi people is a major issue in the histories of Rwanda and Burundias well as the Great Lakes region of Africa. The relationship between the two modern populations is thus, in many ways, derived from the perceived origins and claim to "Rwandan-ness". The largest conflicts related to this question were the Rwandan genocidethe Burundian genocideand the First and Second Congo Wars. Ugandan scholar Mahmoud Mamdani identifies at least four distinct foundations for studies that support the "distinct difference between Hutu and Tutsi" school of thought: phenotypegenotypecultural memory of inhabitants of Rwanda, archeologyand linguistics.
Most Tutsis and Hutus carry the E1b1a paternal haplogroup, which is common among Bantu populations. More recent studies have de-emphasized physical appearance, such as height and nose width, in favor of examining blood factors, the presence of the sickle cell traitlactose intolerance in adults, and other genotype expressions. Excoffier et al.
Another study concluded that, while the sickle cell trait among the Rwandan Hutu was comparable to that of neighboring people, it was almost non-existent among Rwandan Tutsi. Presence of the sickle cell trait is evidence of survival in the presence of malaria over many centuries, suggesting differing origins. Regional studies of the ability to digest lactose are also supportive. The ability to digest lactose among adults is widespread only among desert-dwelling nomadic groups that have depended upon milk for millennia.
Among Hutu, one in three adults has a high capacity for lactose digestion, a surprisingly high number for an agrarian people, which Mamdani suggests may be the result of centuries of intermarriage with Tutsi.
Although Luis et al. However, the Tutsi have considerably more haplogroup B paternal lineages Trombetta et al. In general, the Tutsi appear to share a close genetic kinship with neighboring Bantu populations, particularly the Hutu. However, it is unclear whether this similarity is primarily due to extensive genetic exchanges between these communities through intermarriage or whether it ultimately stems from common origins:.
With a spectrum of physical variation in the peoples, Belgian authorities legally mandated ethnic affiliation in the s, based on economic criteria. Formal and discrete social divisions were consequently imposed upon ambiguous biological distinctions. To some extent, the permeability of these categories in the intervening decades helped to reify the biological distinctions, generating a taller elite and a shorter underclass, but with little relation to the gene pools that had existed a few centuries ago.
The social categories are thus real, but there is little if any detectable genetic differentiation between Hutu and Tutsi. Tishkoff et al. While most supporters of the migration theory are also supporters of the " Hamitic theory", namely that the Tutsi came from the Horn of Africa, a later theory proposed that the Tutsi had instead migrated from nearby interior East Africaand that the physical differences were the result of natural selection in a dry arid climate over millennia.
Among the most detailed theories was one put forward by Jean Hiernauxbased on studies of blood factors and archeology. Noting the fossil record of a tall people with narrow facial features several thousand years ago in East Africa, including locations such as Gambles Cave in the Kenya Rift Valley and Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, Hiernaux argues that while there was a migration, it was not as dramatic as some sources have proposed.
He explicitly attacks the Hamitic theory that migrants from Ethiopia brought civilization to other Africans. However, in light of recent genetic studies, Hiernaux's theory on the origin of Tutsis in East Africa appears doubtful. The Rwandan myth of the Tutsi and Hutu difference was perpetuated by the Belgian Colonial Administration, helped by filmmaker Harmand Dennis during the s.
The colonial scholars who found complex societies in sub-Saharan Africa developed the Hamitic hypothesis. It continues to echo into the current day, both inside and outside of academic circles. As scholars developed a migration hypothesis for the origin of the Tutsi that rejected the Hamitic thesis, the notion that the Tutsi were civilizing alien conquerors was also put in question.
One school of thought noted that the influx of pastoralists around the fifteenth century may have taken place over an extended period of time and been peaceful, rather than sudden and violent.Watch live. Essential FAQ. Listen: Special podcast episode. Generally speaking, Hutus were an agricultural people who lived in large family groups.
The Tutsis, also known as Watutsis, were a nomadic people who began arriving in the Great Lakes region from Ethiopia some four hundred years ago. Eventually, the Tutsis settled amongst the Hutus — adopting their language, beliefs and customs. But economic differences between the groups soon began to form. The Tutsis as cattle-herders were often in a position of economic dominance to the soil-tilling Hutus. That is not to say that all Tutsis were wealthy and all Hutus were poor, but in many areas, like Rwanda, the minority Tutsis ruled the Hutus.
According to some historians, like Congolese Professor George Izangola, the only difference between the two groups were economic, rather than ethnic. If you were close to the king, you owned wealth, you owned a lot of cattle, you are a Tutsi. Colonial rule, which began in the late 19th Century, did little to bring the groups together.
The Belgians, who ruled what would later become Rwanda and Burundi, forced Hutus and Tutsis to carry ethnic identity cards. The colonial administrators further exacerbated divisions by only allowed Tutsis to attain higher education and hold positions of power.
Following independence inRuanda-Urundi split into two countries: Rwanda and Burundi. In Rwanda, the Hutu majority lashed out at the minority Tutsis — killing thousands and forcing hundreds of thousands to flee to neighboring Uganda. In Burundi, the minority Tutsis maintained their control of the military and government through a campaign of violence against the Hutus.
A History of Hutu-Tutsi Conflict
Although they lost multi-party elections intwo assassinations and a military coup have allowed the Tutsis to remain in power. When Yoweri Museveni, a rebel leader of Tutsi descent, seized power in Uganda init was largely through the assistance of Rwandan Tutsis. After years of fighting, the Rwandan government launched a genocidal campaign against Tutsis living in Rwanda. According to reports, overpeople were slaughtered over a period of days.
Eventually, the tide turned against the Hutus and the Rwanda Patriotic Front defeated the Rwandan Army, forcing hundreds of thousands to flee, mostly to Tanzania and Zaire.
From refugee camps in Zaire, Hutus continued the fighting by launching cross-border raids on Tutsis and moderate Hutus living in Rwanda and Uganda.
When the Hutu raids continued, the Tutsi-led states encouraged a second rebellion against Kabila. With Tutsi rebels continuing to fight in the former Zaire and Hutus waging guerilla battles in Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, the ethnic strife that sparked the slaughters in Rwanda continue to infect the region. Support Provided By: Learn more. Read Apr 10 Industry scrambles to stop fatal bird flu in South Carolina.Hutu and Tutsi are two groups in Africa that became known to most in other parts of the world through the grisly Rwanda genocide, but the history of conflict between the two ethnic groups reaches back further than that.
Generally, the Hutu-Tutsi strife stems from class warfare, with the Tutsis perceived to have greater wealth and social status as well as favoring cattle ranching over what is seen as the lower-class farming of the Hutus.
The Tutsis are thought to have originally come from Ethiopia and arrived after the Hutu came from Chad. The seeds of resentment for the minority Tutsis were sown when the first elections after winning independence in May saw strong Hutu wins, but the king appointed a Tutsi friend prime minister, sparking a failed coup attempt by Hutus.
Even though this was quickly quelled in the capital, it set off additional violence between the two ethnicities in the countryside. In addition, Tutsis, which made up about 15 percent of the population to the 80 percent Hutus, occupied other key government and military positions.
On April 27, some Hutu policemen rebelled, killing all Tutsis and Hutus estimates range from to 1, dead who refused to join the rebellion in the lakeside towns of Rumonge and Nyanza-Lac.
The leaders of the rebellion have been described as radicalized Hutu intellectuals who operated out of Tanzania. The Tutsi president, Michel Micombero, responded by declaring martial law and putting the wheels of a Hutu genocide in motion.
The first phase virtually wiped out the educated Hutu by June, nearly 45 percent of teachers were reported missing; students at technical schools were targeted, as welland by the time the carnage was done in May about 5 percent of the population had been killed: estimates range fromto up toHutu.
The Hutus won the presidential office with banker Melchior Ndadaye, forming the first government since independence from Belgium in with elections that had been agreed to by the ruling Tutsis, but Ndadaye was assassinated shortly thereafter. The killing of the president threw the country back into turmoil, claiming about 25, Tutsi civilians in revenge killings.
This sparked killings of Hutu, resulting in a total death toll of about 50, over the next several months. The mass killings of the Tutsi wouldn't be called genocide by the United Nations until a inquiry. By this time, tens of thousands of Hutus had fled the Burundi violence into Rwanda.
Blame for the assassination has been pointed at both Tutsi and Hutu extremists; current Rwandan President Paul Kagame, who at the time led a Tutsi rebel group, has said that the Hutu extremists conducted the rocket attack to set in motion their long-laid-out plans to wipe out the Tutsis.
These genocidal plans were hatched not just at cabinet meetings, but spread in media incitement, and capped a long period of ethnic unrest in Rwanda. Between April and July, someTutsis and moderate Hutus were killed, with a militia group called the Interahamwe taking lead in the slaughter. Sometimes Hutus were forced to kill their Tutsi neighbors; other participants in the genocide were given monetary incentives.
The United Nations let the killings go on unabated after 10 Belgian peacekeepers were killed in the early days of the genocide. Many Hutu militants who participated in the Rwandan genocide fled to the Congo insetting up encampments in the mountainous areas akin to fiefdoms. In addition, several groups of Hutu fighting the Tutsi-dominated government of Burundi settled in the eastern part of the country.
Rwanda's Tutsi government has twice invaded with the intention of wiping out the Hutu militants. Up to five million deaths have been caused by the years of fighting in the Congo. The Interahamwe now call themselves the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda and use the country as a staging base to overthrow Kagame in Rwanda.
One of the group's commanders told the Daily Telegraph inWe are fighting every day because we are Hutu and they are Tutsis. We cannot mix, we are always in conflict. We will stay enemies forever. Share Flipboard Email.The difference between Hutu and Tutsi arises from their place of origin. For many of us, who have been watching the disturbing news about genocide in Rwanda and Burundi since the last decade of 20th century, the most worrying part is how and why would two ethnic groups become so hostile, so as to kill and try to annihilate each other?
Yes, we are talking about Hutus and Tutsis, two ethnic groups living together for centuries in central Africa. Millions of people have lost their lives in this war of hatred and supremacy between Hutu and Tutsi in the last two decades. This article attempts to get to the genesis of this ethnic cleansing by differentiating between Hutu and Tutsi people.
Hutus, also known as Bahutu and Wahutudominate the population, in number, in Rwanda and Burundi among the Bantu speaking people. They are considered to be the original inhabitants of the area. The Hutu lifestyle was built around small-scale agriculture.
When it comes to social organization of Hutus, it was based on clans. They had petty kings who were known as bahinza. These kings ruled over a limited area. When you consider their physical appearances, as people have observed normally, Hutus are shorter and stronger with broader features. They have low-pitched voices. They also seem to have big noses. Tutsis are the people who came later into the territory of the Hutus and got the power. They have been the minority, but always the powerful kind.
In other words, unlike Hutus who were large in number, Tutsis were always the minority. Yet they were always the minority with power in both Rwanda and Burundi. When it comes to physical features, people have observed that Tutsis are taller and thinner. They have high-pitched voices. They also seem to have long noses. Now that we know some distinguishing factors between the two groups, let us see more into their history.
Hutu and Tutsi are two ethnic groups that have come to the limelight because of the genocide that has taken place in Rwanda sinceand if one were to look at the two tribes superficially, there hardly seems to be any difference as both speak the same Bantu language and mostly practice Christianity. This seems more of a class war with Tutsis being perceived as richer and having a better social status than Hutus.
Tutsis have control over cattle, whereas Hutus control the lowly farming practices. If we look back at history, it seems that Hutus and Tutsis have coexisted peacefully for nearly years in Central Africa.
Tutsis arrived from Ethiopia and conquered Hutus and their homeland. Hutus accepted their supremacy and agreed to raise crops in lieu for protection. During German rule, Tutsis were given prominence because of their taller stature. They were also ones with a long nose, one facial feature that is hard to find in African tribes.
Tutsis, thus got recognition from colonial rulers and received patronage, which got them education and government jobs. Hutus, who were in majority, resented the special status of Tutsis, and this resulted in sparks between the two tribes. The situation changed when Belgium took over the power of control of the area. Belgians recognized the supremacy of Hutus and allowed them to make the government.Ethnic cleansing in the Soviet Union. The Rwandan genocidealso known as the genocide against the Tutsi was a mass slaughter of TutsiTwaand moderate Hutu in Rwandawhich took place between 7 April and 15 July during the Rwandan Civil War.
Neither side was able to gain a decisive advantage in the war, and the Rwandan government led by President Juvenal Habyarimana  signed the Arusha Accords with the RPF on 4 August Most historians agree that a genocide against the Tutsi had been planned for at least a year. Genocidal killings began the following day when soldiers, police, and militia executed key Tutsi and moderate Hutu military and political leaders. The scale and brutality of the massacre caused shock worldwide, but no country intervened to forcefully stop the killings.
Hutu gangs searched out victims hiding in churches and school buildings. The militia murdered victims with machetes and rifles. The genocide had lasting and profound effects on Rwanda and neighbouring countries. Today, Rwanda has two public holidays to mourn the genocide, and denial or historical revisionism of the genocide is a criminal offence. The earliest inhabitants of what is now Rwanda were the Twaa group of aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who settled in the area between BC and BC and remain in Rwanda today.
The population coalesced, first into clans ubwoko and then, byinto around eight kingdoms. Rwabugiri expanded the kingdom west and north,   and initiated administrative reforms which caused a rift to grow between the Hutu and Tutsi populations.The History of Rwanda Genocide - Where Were You - Ep22
Rwanda and neighbouring Burundi were assigned to Germany by the Berlin Conference of and Germany established a presence in the country in with the formation of an alliance with the king. While it had previously been possible for particularly wealthy Hutus to become honorary Tutsis, the identity cards prevented any further movement between the groups. After World War IIa Hutu emancipation movement began to grow in Rwanda,  fuelled by increasing resentment of the inter-war social reforms, and also an increasing sympathy for the Hutu within the Catholic Church.
This was the first document to label the Tutsi and Hutu as separate races, and called for the transfer of power from Tutsi to Hutu based on what it termed "statistical law". On 1 November Dominique Mbonyumutwaa Hutu sub-chief, was attacked close to his home in ByimanaGitarama prefecture by supporters of the pro-Tutsi party. Mbonyumutwa survived, but rumours began spreading that he had been killed. Pro-Hutu and Anti-Tutsi discrimination continued in Rwanda itself, although the indiscriminate violence against the Tutsi did decrease somewhat.
Rwanda's population had increased from 1. Kagame restarted the war in Januarywith a surprise attack on the northern town of Ruhengeri. The RPF captured the town, benefiting from the element of surprise, and held it for one day before retreating to the forests. In the early years of Habyarimana's regime, there was greater economic prosperity and reduced violence against Tutsis.
A pogrom was organised on 11 October in a commune in Gisenyi Provincekilling Tutsi. Following the ceasefire agreement, a number of the extremists in the Rwandan government and army began actively plotting against the president, worried about the possibility of Tutsis being included in government. From mid, the Hutu Power movement represented a third major force in Rwandan politics, in addition to Habyarimana's government and the traditional moderate opposition.
Many historians argue that the genocide was planned in advance of Habyarimana's assassination, although they do not agree on the precise date on which the idea of a "final solution" to kill every Tutsi in Rwanda was first rooted. Inthe army began arming civilians with weapons such as machetes, and it began training the Hutu youth in combat, officially as a programme of "civil defence" against the RPF threat,  but these weapons were later used to carry out the genocide.
In MarchHutu Power began compiling lists of "traitors" whom they planned to kill, and it is possible that Habyarimana's name was on these lists;  the CDR were publicly accusing the president of treason.
In Octoberthe President of Burundi, Melchior Ndadayewho had been elected in June as the country's first ever Hutu president, was assassinated by extremist Tutsi army officers. The assassination sparked a Civil War and large mass-killing between Burundi's Hutu and Tutsi with 50, topeople killed in the first year of war. According to the memo, Turatsinze suspected that a genocide against the Tutsis was being planned, and he said that "in 20 minutes his personnel could kill up to Tutsis".
The ICTR prosecution was unable to prove that a conspiracy to commit genocide existed prior to 7 April What the Office of the Prosecutor has consistently failed to demonstrate is the alleged existence of a "conspiracy" among the accused—presuming an association or a preexisting plan to commit genocide.
This is the central argument at the core of its prosecution strategy, borrowing from the contentions initially put forth by academics and human rights defenders.Hutus and Tutsis are the two main ethnic groups in Rwanda. They are most known in the West because of their roles in the Rwandan genocide ofin which Hutu extremists massacred more thanTutsis and Hutu moderates. It is believed that the differences in skin tone can determine whether a person is Hutu or Tutsi. However, because the races regularly mixed, this is not a reliable guide.
Tutsis are typically thought of as lighter skinned than those of Hutu decent. Many descriptions of Tutsis include that they have light brown skin like Ethiopians, Eritreans and other ethnic groups from farther north in Africa.
Many scholars believe Tutsis are a separate ethnic group that migrated to Rwanda, most likely from the North.
Once they settled in Rwanda, however, Tutsis and Hutus regularly mixed, and the names "Hutu" and "Tutsi" became shorthand for social class as much as ethnic background. Hutus who moved into dominant positions in society positions usually occupied by the Tutsi elite were considered to be Tutsis, while Tutsis who settled down to farm were considered to be Hutus.
The modern understanding of Tutsis as purely light skinned is also deeply rooted in racist colonial doctrines that sought to justify the Tutsi dominance of Rwanda on the grounds of their greater "whiteness. The Hutu, as a settled group that existed in Rwanda before the arrival of the Tutsi, are generally considered to be darker skinned, with tones resembling the very dark browns of other Central Africans.
Just as with Tutsis, this characteristic is not a reliable guide to the ethnic origin of any individual Rwandan, but it may reflect some residual genetics from a time before the arrival of the Tutsi in the area. Anthropologists have come up with long lists of characteristics dividing Hutu and Tutsi. All of them are subject to serious academic debate.
Broadly speaking, Tutsis are said to have higher cheekbones, larger skulls and longer necks than Hutus. There may also be genetic differences. Some studies have found that there are a lower proportion of people with sickle cell anemia among the Tutsis. Since this protects from malaria, the presence of a sickle cell gene usually indicates that a group has lived in a malarial area for some time.
This would suggest that the Hutu arrived from a less-malarial area within their recent history. Joshua Smyth started writing in and is based in St. John's, Newfoundland. He has written for the award-winning "Cord Weekly" and for "Blueprint Magazine" in Waterloo, Ontario, where he spent a year as editor-in-chief. The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language. See disclaimer. About the Author.But many observers would be surprised to learn that the longstanding conflict between the Hutus and Tutsis has nothing to do with language or religion—they speak the same Bantu tongues as well as French and generally practice Christianity —and many geneticists have been hard-pressed to find marked ethnic differences between the two, though the Tutsi have generally been noted to be taller.
Many believe that German and Belgian colonizers tried to find differences between the Hutu and Tutsi in order to better categorize native peoples in their censuses. Generally, the Hutu-Tutsi strife stems from class warfare, with the Tutsis perceived to have greater wealth and social status as well as favoring cattle ranching over what is seen as the lower-class farming of the Hutus. These class differences started during the 19th century, were exacerbated by colonization, and exploded at the end of the 20th century.
In Burundi, however, a Hutu uprising failed and the Tutsis controlled the country. The Tutsi and Hutu people interacted long before European colonization in the 19th century. According to some sources, the Hutu people lived in the area originally, while the Tutsi migrated from the Nile region.
When they arrived, the Tutsi were able to establish themselves as leaders in the area with little conflict. While the Tutsi people became "aristocracy," there was a good deal of intermarriage. Rather than establishing a government from Brussels, however, the Belgians placed the Tutsi in charge with the support of the Europeans.
This decision led to the exploitation of the Hutu people at the hands of the Tutsis.
Difference Between Hutu and Tutsi
Starting inthe Hutus began to rebel against their treatment, writing a Manifesto and staging violent actions against the Tutsi. InBelgium left the area and two new nations, Rwanda and Burundi, were formed. Between anda number of violent clashes occurred between the Hutus and Tutsis; all of this was leading up to the genocide of The Hutu president of Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, was also killed in the attack. This sparked the chillingly well-organized extermination of Tutsis by Hutu militias, even though blame for the plane attack has never been established.
Sexual violence against Tutsi women was also widespread, and the United Nations only conceded that "acts of genocide" had occurred two months after the killing began.
After the genocide and the Tutsis' regaining control, about 1. Janowski, Kris. Share Flipboard Email. Bridget Johnson. Political Journalist. She is a senior fellow specializing in terrorism analysis at the Haym Salomon Center. Updated February 13,